Multimodal Neuroimaging-Based Closed-Loop Neurofeedback: Applications in Neuroscience Research and Clinical Rehabilitation.
There has long been popular as well as scientific imagination that signals from the brain could be used for communication and control. Research in closed-loop feedback systems of brain activity such as Neurofeedback, Brain-Machine Interfaces and Neuroprosthetics shows that we can change our behavior by gaining self-control over specific neural substrates using feedback derived from functional neuroimaging. Neurofeedback research has recently made substantial advances in the understanding of brain function, neuroplasticity and the underlying mechanisms of feedback learning. The potential benefits are manifold, including understanding causal brain-behavior relations and self-administration of neurotherapy. While neurofeedback research has been isolated by separate neuroimaging modality, here we examine recent advances along multimodal neuroimaging lines, attempting to synthesize the approaches for a unified and efficient development trajectory.