The kinds of surveillance cues I am referring to are generally images of watching eyes — drawings or photographs — and have also been referred to as eyespots. Stimuli that have been used in the past include Horus eyes, Kabuki eyes, Kismet the robot, three black dots in the configuration of an upside-down triangle (suggesting two eyes and a mouth), and photos of watching eyes.
Studies on artificial surveillance cues have investigated their ability to increase cooperative and altruistic behavior, such as giving in the dictator game, and the reduction of uncooperative behavior such as littering and bicycle theft. Well-known papers on this phenomenon include Haley and Fessler, 2005, and Bateson et al., 2006.
Inclusion criteria are as follows:
- Some kind of visual cue of being watched was used as a stimulus.
- This visual cue of being watched was artificial, rather than a cue to really being watched, such as a video camera or two-way mirror.
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